Devon History Society 2014 Programme

The next meeting in the DHS 2014 programme is its Second Local History Skills Seminar at North Devon Record Office, Barnstaple, on May 7th.
For full programme and forms: >

Wednesday, May 7th, 10am-4 pm.
Second Local History Skills Seminar
at North Devon Record Office, Barnstaple.
Tutors/speakers include Deborah Gahan, Gary Knaggs, Naomi  Ayre.
Free to DHS members and members of affiliated societies.  Limited places. No guests or visitors.
See separate page for programme and downloadable booking form.

Thursday, May 15th, 11am-1pm.
Seminar at Mint Methodist Centre
Fore St. , Exeter.  
Dr. Clare Greener  –  Researching the History of Devon Gardens
Free to DHS members. Refreshments free but donations welcome.(Use city centre car parks, no parking at Centre)
Click here for booking form.

Thursday, June 19th, 2.30pm-4pm.
Visit to Grade II listed Church of St. Peter and St. Paul, Teigngrace.
Judith Jolliffe - The Templer Family and Teigngrace Parish Church
Free to DHS members, charge for cream tea.(Free parking)
Click here for booking form.

Saturday, June 28th, 10am-4pm. 
Third Devon History Society Conference on Religion in Devon
to be held at Mint Methodist Centre, Exeter on the theme of : Nonconformism in Devon.
See separate page for programme and downloadable booking form.

Friday, July 25nd, 2.30am-4pm. 
Dr. Patricia Milton – The Literary Invention of Dartmoor
Lecture at Endecott House, Chagford.  
Free to DHS members and members of Chagford Local History Society. Refreshments free but donations welcome.(Use local car parks)
Click here for booking form.

Saturday, 11th October, 10am-3.30pm.
Devon History Society, AGM
at University of Exeter, Streatham Campus, Streatham Court, Lecture Room B, on the theme of  : The First World War.
Free to DHS members, but charge for refreshments. The programme and booking arrangements will be included with the August Newsletter.  Speakers to include Prof. Jeremy Black, Dr. Bruce Coleman and Dr. Richard Batten.

Tuesday, November 4th, 2.30am-4pm.
Marc Partridge – Enforcing the Contagious Disease Acts in Victorian Plymouth
Lecture at Plymouth Central Library.
Free to DHS members. Booking arrangements will be added in August.   

Wednesday, November 12th, 2pm-4pm. 
Emma Rouse (Wyvern Heritage)  –  Exploring the Historic Landscape of Devon
Seminar at Mint Methodist Centre, Fore St. , Exeter.  
Free to DHS members. Booking arrangements will added in August.
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Future of Devon Heritage Services and the North Devon Record Office: an update

Further to news of plans to amalgamate regional heritage services: Devon County Council have now agreed that Devon Record Office / Heritage Services at Exeter will transfer to the new South West Heritage Trust in September. The future status of the North Devon Record Office, however, remains unclear, so our members will be interested to know of Save North Devon Record Office and Local Studies Centre.


Members of Devon History Society will be interested to know that Devon County Council have now agreed that Devon Record Office / Heritage Services  at Exeter will transfer to the new South West Heritage Trust, set up in conjunction with Somerset County Council, from September 2014. The full results of the consultation can be found at 

However, Society members who use the North Devon Record Office should be aware that it is still unclear whether full services at Barnstaple will be maintained. The extract from the consultation paper referring to North Devon is given below
Concerns from North Devon groups and individuals around the potential future of the North Devon Record Office

We will engage with partners and stakeholders in North Devon to determine the future shape of provision there. It is understood that stakeholders have strong views and we are developing a new model which could be introduced to enable users of the service to have continued access to a wide range of materials in Barnstaple, whilst still delivering savings.

A greater number of respondents expressed explicit support for the proposal than those against. Those in support generally expressed the view that it represents the best option in the current economic climate to preserve standards of care and accessibility of heritage collections. However, support was often conditional upon current levels of service being maintained in both Exeter and Barnstaple.
The major concern registered, that of the future level of provision at the Barnstaple office, is being addressed by the formation of a local working group charged with the task of formulating a sustainable, collaborative service offer in north Devon that makes the best use of the available resources, while still delivering the necessary savings.
As a consequence of the uncertainty, a Save North Devon Record Office and Local Studies Centre group has been formed. This group has no connection with the Devon History Society but as so many of the Society’s members will be concerned with the fate of services in North Devon, the Society feels that it is worth pointing out:
  • 1. that the Save North Devon Record Office Group has organised an online petition, which needs a unique e-mail address as a condition of signing, and this can be found at
  • 2. that there is also a second survey, which asks just two questions which relate specifically to the proposed model of service delivery in North Devon. (This is an online version of the form available at the Local Studies Centre – if the form has already been completed, you do not need to undertake this survey)
  • 3. This survey can be found at
  • 4. This online survey is limited to 100 responses so once this limit is reached another link to the survey will be set up.
Save North Devon Record Office and Local Studies Centre have also produced campaign pages for those who use Facebook and/or Twitter accounts. These are available at  Facebook Save-North-Devon-Record-Office-and-Local-Studies-Centre/1391934824415087 and Twitter SaveNDLocalStudies@NDLocalStudies respectively.
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Building the Devonport Column

The Devonport Column has now been re-open to the public for nearly a year. John Foulston's The public buildings erected in the West of England as designed by John Foulston F.R.I.B.A. (1838) has interesting detail on the construction. "The manner of raising and setting the stones ... is, he [the author] believes, perfectly novel, and will not fail to interest the young practitioner". >

Further to last year's post on Foulston's Calvinist chapel, Devonport, a now-lost building in John Foulston's Ker Street development for the newly-incorporated Devonport: Foulston's The public buildings erected in the West of England also describes the construction of the Devonport Column.

The stones were raised without scaffolding, by the use of a "Spar" (a stout vertical mast) with a "Gaff" (an angled boom acting as a crane) at the top. As the height increased, extra sections were added to the top of the Spar, which was reinforced and braced to the already-built section of the Column, as required.
Commemorative Column, Devonport

This column, which was intended to be erected by public subscription, commemorates the change of the name of the town from "Plymouth Dock" to "Devonport", the authority for which was granted, agreeable to a petition forwarded to George IV, in 1823.

The Foundation Stone was laid on the 12th of August, 1824, and it was originally proposed to place a colossal statue of His Majesty on the summit; but certain individuals having refused to answer the engagements to which they had affixed their names as subscribers, the parties employed in the erection have not been paid; and there is, consequently, very little chance of its being completed in the manner originally contemplated. Instead of being a trophy, recording the honours which belong to a high sounding name, it is likely to remain a memorial of the neglect and injustice with which the indigent widow of the builder, and others have been treated, to whom considerable sums are now due.

This Column is built of a beautiful granite from a quarry near the Tamar. The Shaft is 11 feet in diameter—its height from the bottom of the Shaft to the top of the Capital is 65ft. 4in., being nearly six diameters. The Column makes, with its inferior and crowning pedestals, a total altitude of 101ft. 4in. Its height above the street, including the rock on which it stands, is 124 feet. Every stone was hoisted and set without the use of

scaffolding. The Abacus of the Capital is in four stones, each weighing between 3 and 4 tons.

The ascent is by a spiral Staircase within the Shaft to the Gallery on the Capital; which commands a prospect of surprising variety, interest, and beauty. "As you look down on the town of Devonport and its Dock-yard, and also on the extensive waters of Hamoaze, as on a map, where generally from 90 to 100 ships of war are reposing—the hills, vales, fields, woods, and waters, from Hengeston Down in the north, to the ocean in the south—from the wilds of Dartmoor in the east, to the billowy eminences of Cornwall in the west—lie below the gaze in a beautiful varied panorama." *


Plate 85—Plan at A, B, on section.

Plate 86—Plans at different heights, as described by letters of reference Figs. 1 and 2—Plan and section of Dowels, being of old ship timber—"heart of oak"; mortice holes were cut in the stones at each joint, as shwen in the plans, into which these Dowels were fitted, and swam in and plaistered over with Parker's cement. Fig 3—Cast Iron Rain Water Pipe.

* Vide Carrington's "Devonport Guide," p.6.

Plate 87—Elevation and Section

Plate 88—Fig. 1—Elevation of Capital and upper part of Column.
Fig. 2—Lower part of Column.
Fig. 3—Plan of upper and lower Diameters.
Fig. 4—Section of upper part of Column, shewing the method of securing the Echinus, (which was in 6 stones) by Irons, until the Abacus and other work was set over them.
Fig. 5—Method of Drawing the Echinus.

Plate 89—The manner in which the Stones were raised and set.

The Stones in the foundation, the Plinths, and the lower part of the Shaft, were raised and set with the triangle; those above in the following manner:—The end of a Spar a, 45 feet long, was let into the ground, erected and braced by the diagonal pieces, c,c, and lashed and strutted to the lower part of the Shaft, similar to the method shown at A,B, but afterwards removed for the support under, and to fix a second spar b; the end of top was secured by Guys R,R,R,R, strained tight by Blocks and Falls fastened to Piles driven into the ground at k,k, &c. A Gaff D, with Jaws at the lower end, was then slung in the throat by a strong Rope or Chain at s, so as to work round the upright Spar in the Jaws prepared for this movement, at the end or bottom of the Gaff, and placed at the height required for raising the Stone, as shwen in the upper part of the Drawing at D.

As the work proceeded, the second Spar b, 58 feet long, was hoisted and placed in the Cap F, supported by a Shore T under the heel, 15 feet long, as shewn from the Plinth, and braced to the Column and secured by Lashing and Guys in a similar manner (as shewn at A,B.) When more height was required for hoisting and setting the upper Courses, the third Spar n, 50 feet long, was hoisted with a Shore under o, 23 feet long, to lengthen it, and placed in the Cap L, lashed and braced to the Shaft of Column then built, and the top secured by Guys as before; and the Gaff raised and slung at the height required, as shewn in the drawing for hoisting and setting the top Stone.

By the Blocks and Fall, and the manner of setting the Jaws, and hanging the Gaff, it is easily adjusted and regulated, so as to bring the stone immediately over the spot on which it is to be set. The Fall for regulating the Gaff, being secured to a Cleet G, fixed in the lower part of the upright Spar A, at G.

The Stones are hoisted by a Crab or Windlass, secured to the pile H, driven into the ground, and by Blocks and Falls placed as shewn at I, I, I, I.

By proportionally increasing the size and number of the Spars, Guys, &c. &c., and having Blocks and Falls sufficiently strong, Stones, Statues, &c., of any weight may be raised to the height required.
Here are the plates: click to enlarge (I've done my best to correct for difficult lighting, and the inability to flatten the pages of this rare book - RG).

Plate 85
Plate 86

Plate 87

Plate 88

Plate 89

Plate 89 (detail)

Plate 89 (detail)

- RG

Thanks to the Devon and Exeter Institution for guest access to its library; all images are reproduced courtesy of the Institution
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Forthcoming talks

The diary list has been updated with some forthcoming talks. >

Exmouth and District U3A
Thursday 17th April, Exmouth Pavilion, 10.00-12.00.
Monthly general meeting, to include a talk entitled "Art, Culture and the University of Exeter" by Dom Jinks, Head of Art and Culture at Exeter University.  Come and hear how the general public can take advantage of these arts and cultural activities.

Topsham Museum Lunchtime Lecture
Wednesday 30th April, Topsham Museum
The Art of the Devon Garden. Dr Todd Gray.
11 for 11.30am.

Newton St Cyres History Club
15th May 7.30pm at  Newton St Cyres Village Hall
"Newton St Cyres and the Exeter Crediton Railway". Chris Southcott, Tim Sedgwick and Malcolm Brooks

Crediton Area History and Museum Society
Monday 10th November 7.30pm at the Boniface Centre, Crediton
The Impact of the First World War on Agriculture and Women in Devon. Judi Binks
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Devon History Society Orchard Project: update

The Devon History Society Orchard Project is a DHS initiative to improve documentation of the decline of fruit growing in Devon - particularly East Devon - in the 19th century. It has now completed transcription of orchard data from Devon tithe apportionments c. 1840, and the summary report is now available. >

Devon History Society Orchard Project
Around 50 volunteers extracted orchard data from the Devon tithe apportionment transcriptions during November and December 2013.  That information covering 470 parishes has now been collated and merged into a database.

As described in the introductory post in December 2013 - Devon History Society Orchard Project - the c1840 orchard data will be a useful complement to the c1890 data gathered by the Devon Historic Environment Service, already analysed by Dr Sam Turner in the Devon County Council Historic Landscape Characterisation (HLC) of the entire county.

The 1840 summary report table is in an appendix to this post - Devon Orchards Parish Summary Report: appendix for data - or as a PDF (Devon Orchards Parish Summary Report). (All area data has been converted to hectares for ease of use, although the original figures are still retained in the database).

The next stage of the project is to display the orchards on electronic mapping. The examples below are for East Budleigh orchards map. The green plots are the orchards from the East Budleigh tithe apportionment and the pink areas are as plotted on the Devon HLC. (Click to enlarge).

East Budleigh HLC Orchards
East Budleigh Tithe Apportionment Orchards
As the Devon Heritage Centre is currently in the process of tendering for a contractor to draw all of the Devon tithe plots, we would be duplicating that effort by mapping the orchards at this time.  That being the case, we await the Devon Heritage Centre before proceeding any further.

The orchards database is massive and is not really suitable for the web site. However, should you want the data for a particular parish, or even a small group of parishes, we can send you the MS Excel spreadsheets to order: email

Many thanks to all those volunteers who helped with this exercise and brought us to this point in the project.

- PP
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Parliament and Suffragettes, Exeter, 29 Apr

The University of Exeter is hosting a public lecture - Parliament and Suffragettes - on the evening of Tuesday, 29 April, with Dr Mari Takayanagi (Senior Archivist at the Parliamentary Archives). An event in the Houses of Parliament Open Lecture series, the lecture is hosted by the University of Exeter Politics Department as part of its 50th Birthday Celebrations.

From the flyer:

Parliament and Suffragettes
This lecture will examine the interaction of the UK women’s suffrage movement with Parliament, from the first petition presented to the House of Commons in 1832 to the achievement of equal franchise in 1928. It will consider how Parliament reacted to the lobbying and petitioning of the peaceful constitutional suffrage movement led by Millicent Fawcett, the direct actions of the militant suffragette organisations led by Emmeline Pankhurst and others, and the individual protests by Emily Wilding Davison. It will also consider the early women MPs from 1919, and how women came to enter the House of Lords in 1958. Find out more about Open Lectures at

Mari Takayanagi is Senior Archivist at the Parliamentary Archives, responsible for day to day management of public services and outreach activities. She has a 1st class Honours degree in Modern History from the University of Oxford, an MA in Archives and Records Management from UCL, and in 2012 she was awarded a PhD in History by King’s College London. Her doctoral thesis was on ‘Parliament and Women c.1900-1945’, and it examine legislation affecting women’s lives and gender equality after the First World War, the role of women in Parliamentary Select and Standing Committees in the interwar period, and women staff in Parliament in the early 20th century.

Date: Tuesday 29 April 2014
Time: 18:00 – 19:30, followed by a drinks reception
Venue: Business School, Streatham Court, Lecture Theatre C, Rennes Drive, Exeter, EX4 4PU.

Register to attend by contacting Gemma Thomas at or telephone 01392 722061.
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Halberton History Room: opening 5 Apr

The Halberton History Group has sent us news of the official opening of Halberton History Room in Halberton Village Hall on the morning of Saturday 5th April. >

Next Saturday morning, the 5th, the Halberton History Room will be officially opened by our Devon County Councillor, Des Hannon. The actual ceremony will take place at 10.30 and the Village Hall will be open from 10.00 to 1.00.

Our room is not very big so we will also be using the main Hall room.  Everyone will be most welcome to drop in for a cup of tea and to see some of our collection of pictures, documents, etc. plus a display about the discovered Roman Site in the east of our parish kindly lent by the Sampford Peverell Society.

If you cannot come on Saturday the room will generally be open to visitors on Wednesday afternoons and Friday mornings.

Halberton is in the Culm Valley, about 5 miles east of Tiverton (see Google Map).

For more information and contact details, see Halberton History Group.
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Exmouth Battery exposed

The Exmouth Journal recently reported that erosion of dunes in February's storms has exposed masonry from the old Exmouth Artillery Battery. >

See Storms reveal Napoleonic sea defences on beach (Dave Beasley, Exmouth Journal, Tuesday, February 18, 2014).

The JSBlog post Exmouth Battery exposed has more photos and historical details.

- RG
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Stover School Local History Lectures, Mar-Apr

Stover School has sent us news of its six-week evening lecture series on the local history of the Newton Abbot area, starting with The Story of the Stover Canal, on Tuesday 18th March. >

Stover School Evening Lecture Series on Local History

Stover will be hosting a series of six evening lectures encompassing the local history of Newton Abbot and the surrounding area. Lectures will run on Tuesday evenings at 7pm starting Tuesday 18th March 2014. Each week will focus on a different aspect of local history, and be taught by members of local history societies and clubs.
  • Tues 18th March - The Story of the Stover Canal. The history of this historic waterway from 1792 to decline in 1937 and its restoration from 1999 to present day
  • Tues 25th March - The Evolution and Heritage of Stover Park. A look at the events and people who have shaped the historic parkland from Domesday to the present day
  • Tues 1st April - Forgotten Times, Forgotten Men. Newton Abbot during the period of the Great War
  • Tues 8th April - A Taste of Newton Abbot. An illustrated whirlwind tour of the town's fascinating history
  • Tues 15th April - Haytor Quarries and the Granite Tramway. The history and archaeology of the Haytor Quarries and the Granite Tramway
  • Tues 22nd April - 350 Years of South Devon's Ball Clay Industry. The geology and history of the production and uses of Bovey Basin ball clays from the 16th century to the present day
Registration for the whole six week series is £60, which includes refreshments during each lecture. Alternately, you may register for individual lectures at a cost of £12/lecture.

See the Stover School website - Stover School Evening Lecture Series on Local History - for contacts and registration details.
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Heritage Services: final chance to comment

URGENT REQUEST FOR RESPONSES - CLOSES MAR 6: Devon Heritage Services recently announced the proposed merger of Devon and Somerset Heritage Services into a joint devolved trust - provisionally called the South West Heritage Trust - to manage heritage services in both counties. The proposal is now under public consultation.

The Devon History Society urges all its members, and any other users of these heritage services, to make their views known before the closing date, March 6th 2014. Read on for links to the proposal and comment pages. >



Responses required by March 6th

Devon Heritage Services (DHS) has launched a consultation regarding the proposal that the Devon Heritage  Services merge with Somerset Heritage Services to form a joint devolved trust.

They have asked members of the public who may have used the record offices in Exeter, Barnstaple or Somerset to make their views known by answering  a short questionnaire.  There is also the opportunity to make individual free text comments on the proposals at the end of the questionnaire by clicking on the Leave a Comment page.

The consultation ends on Thursday March 6th, and Devon History Society urges all its members concerned with heritage services to make their views known before the closing date.

Information on the proposal:  Joint heritage service consultation
The questionnaire: The proposal and feedback form
The free text comment page: Leave a comment

See the previous post Joint Heritage Trust: plans to safeguard heritage collections for a brief summary of the scope of the proposed trust.

- RG
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St Boniface - Kennerleigh, 19th June

Kennerleigh Heritage Group is hosting a talk on Saint Boniface, by the historian Judi Binks, on the evening of Thursday 19th June, at the church of St John the Baptist, Kennerleigh.

A talk on "Saint Boniface" by Judi Binks will take place on Thursday 19th June in the church of St John the Baptist at Kennerleigh at 7.30pm.

Over two hundred letters to and by Boniface remain in existence, illuminating the turbulent life and times of this fascinating European religious leader, said to have been born in Crediton.

In her term as Farmington Fellow, Judi's research on St Boniface involved retracing part of his journey across Europe, exploring his European legacy and how he established a strong brand of Christianity in a 'disordered world'. Judi is particularly interested in his recognition of the important role played women in the process, including her special favourite Saint Lioba, a West Country kinswoman of Wynfrith, who is now regarded as the Patron Saint of Education in Germany. There may be more academic appraisals of Boniface around, but this is an attempt to take a closer at the man himself and bring to life both his strengths and weaknesses.

As part of a Boniface Festival in Crediton in the 1990s, Judi Binks wrote the libretto for the 'Boniface Cantata' with music speically composed by Reg Thompson, the former music master at Blundell's School, and musical direction by Dorothy Worthington.

The presentation will be followed by refreshments of Wine and Cheese, including tastings of local cheese and cider, in this delightful old church. Printed notes will be available to guests. All proceeds will go to Kennerleigh Church. Tickets £5 including refreshments.

Kennerleigh is in mid-Devon, some 5.5 miles north of Credition: see map for directions.

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Mystery Devon images #2

Further to the previous set, Philip Willis has sent us some more interesting images for identification. All from glass lantern slides dated 1900-20s, some are in the Ilfracombe area, and the rest most likely in Devon; though not necessarily - earlier ones were on the Thames. If you recognise any of the locations (preferably with a corroborating image), e-mail, and we'll forward to Mr Willis. >





#1829 - Castle Rock (centre) and Rugged Jack (right),
Valley of Rocks, nr Lynton (see Geograph)


#1831 - coast path on seaward side of 'Rugged Jack',
Valley of Rocks, Lynton (see Geograph).



#1840 - Lynmouth, looking downstream from Lyndale Bridge (see Francis Frith image).
The building with the round-topped windows is the Lyn Valley Hotel, and the one with
spiked gables the West Lyn Hotel. See Postcards of the Lynmouth Floods of 1952.

#1841 - St Helena's Church, Lundy Island



Greenway's Almshouse Chapel, Tiverton




All images © Philip Willis, reproduced by permission

- RG
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Woodbury Local History Society: 2014

The Woodbury Local History Society has sent us updated details, and its 2014 programme of events. >

Woodbury Local History Society
2014 programme of talks:
6 Mar – Conservation and Preservation of Old Books and Documents etc. - illustrated     talk by Deborah Phillips     (held in Woodbury Village Hall)
1 May – The Life and Times of the Wilson Family, Farmers of Woodbury - illustrated     talk by George Wilson and sisters    (held in Woodbury Salterton Village Hall)
June/July - summer outing (to be arranged)
4 Sep – Inland Waterways of England and Wales - illustrated talk by Bernard Hughes    (held in Woodbury Village Hall, and postponed from last year)
6 Nov – Woodbury’s Tudor Church – talk by John Allan (held in St Swithuns, the         parish church of Woodbury

The Society meets in Woodbury Village Hall (unless otherwise advertised) at 7.30 on the first Thursday of March, May, September and November when a lecture is given by a member or invited speaker. The AGM and social is held on the first Thursday of February. The annual subscription is £8, and the fee for visitors is £4. The Society has a Reference Library and Archive Room in Woodbury Village Hall in which a large collection of papers, maps, books, photographs, newspaper cuttings etc. concerning the parish of Woodbury (and Devon in general) are kept.
  • Chairman: Prof Nick Burgess
  • Secretary: Suzie Austin
The Society has no website itself, though much of what goes on in Woodbury can be found on, the website of Roger Stokes (01395 232350 /

These details have now been added to our Local Groups listing.
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Mystery Devon images

Philip Willis has sent us some interesting images from glass lantern slides, dated 1900-20s. Some in the set are labelled Ilfracombe, but the locations of others remain unidentified. They're most likely in Devon; though not necessarily - some are on the Thames, and one, unexpectedly, was Niagara Falls. Mr Willis kindly allowed us to post the images; if you recognise any of the scenes, e-mail, and we'll forward it to Mr Willis.


Remaining unidentified: #1809, #1843

© Philip Willis, reproduced by permission

#1815: identified: Lundy Island south lighthouse
© Philip Willis, reproduced by permission

#1816: identified - Lynmouth river mouth, looking east (see image)
© Philip Willis, reproduced by permission

#1817: identified - Ilfracombe harbour (see image)
© Philip Willis, reproduced by permission

#1821: identified - beach below Capstone Hill, Ilfracombe (image)
© Philip Willis, reproduced by permission

#1823: identified - Old Maids Cottage, Lee, nr. Ilfracombe
© Philip Willis, reproduced by permission

#1834: identified - Richmond Bridge, London (see Wikipedia)
© Philip Willis, reproduced by permission

© Philip Willis, reproduced by permission

#1853: identified - Lundy Island south lighthouse
© Philip Willis, reproduced by permission

#1855: identified - the Landing Beach, Lundy Island (see Wikimedia Commons)
© Philip Willis, reproduced by permission

#1856: identified - Clovelly (see Explore the Coast)
© Philip Willis, reproduced by permission

#1859: identified - Richmond Bridge, London (see Wikipedia)
© Philip Willis, reproduced by permission

#1861: identified - Teddington Lock east footbridge (see image)
© Philip Willis, reproduced by permission

#1864: identified - Capstone Hill, Ilfracombe (image)
© Philip Willis, reproduced by permission

All images © Philip Willis, reproduced by permission

- RG
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